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Thursday, July 23, 2009

за успехите на Светла Славева-Грифин, Нора Димитрова и Любомира Радоилска

Този блог също скоро ще излезе в заслужен летен отдих :-),
но преди лятната му ваканция на него задължително трябва да сложа още поне три съобщения-похвали.

Тези три похвали са за три колеги, които успяха заслужено по света и имат признанието на международната общност.

Те са Светла Славева-Грифин, Нора Димитрова и Любомира Радоилска.

И трите са завършили класическата гимназия.


И трите са завършили след това Софийския Университет.

Светла Грифин и Нора Димитрова са магистри по класическа филология, а Любомира - по философия.
И трите след това са подготвили и защитили докторати в чужбина: Любомира Радоилска в Париж, а Светла Славева-Грифин и Нора Димитрова - в Щатите.

Също така и трите през последните две години са публикували своите първи книги в престижни университетски издателства.
Книгата на Любомира Радоилска е публикувана в Прес юниверситер дьо Франс - Actualité d'Aristote en morale.2007. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 308pp., ISBN 978-2-13-056176-7, книгата на Нора Димитрова - в Принстън, а книгата на Светла Славева-Грифин Плотин за числото е публикувана в Оксфордското университетско издателство.

В този пост ще отделя повече внимание на Нора Димитрова.
Тя е отлично позната на нашата четяща философска общност като един от най-добрите преводачи на антични философски текстове, защото тя преведе на български
Прокъл. Първооснови на теологията
Книгата излезе в Библиотека Касталия на издателство ЛИК, С., 1995 г., под общата редакция на Иван Колев.

Но също така Нора Димитрова е позната на нашата и на световната епиграфска научна колегия.

Българската епиграфика е не само позната от световната научна общност, но е и призната от нея като задаваща еталон.

Това до голяма степен се дължи на някои учени, които не са вече сред нас като проф. Георги Михайлов и проф. Димитър Бояджиев, но и на техните достойни приемници днес като проф. Мирена Славова и д-р Нора Димитрова.

Д-р Нора Димитрова и проф. Кевин Клинтън са и учредители и двигатели на една сравнително нова и сравнително непопулярна изследователска институция -
Американският изследователски институт в София:

http://einaudi.cornell.edu/arcs/


Ето и рецензия за книгата на Нора Димитрова, която ми изпрати Светла Славева-Грифин с предложение да я сложа и тук.

Заглавието на книгата е малко трудно за превеждане.

Например, първата дума Theoroi, трябва да се преведе описателно с три думи на български - култови пратеници-посветени.
Е, наистина, това е съвсем работен превод като за блог.

И така, ето рецензия от Кирстен Бедиган за книгата на д-р Димитрова
Поклонници-пратеници и посветени в Самотраки: Епиграфските свидетелства



Nora M. Dimitrova,

Theoroi and Initiates in Samothrace: The Epigraphical Evidence.

Hesperia Supplement, 37. Princeton: American
School of Classical Studies at Athens, 2008. Pp. xiv, 280. ISBN
9780876615379. $55.00 (pb).

Reviewed by Kirsten M. Bedigan, University of Glasgow
(k.m.bedigan@gmail.com)
Word count: 1711 words
-------------------------------
To read a print-formatted version of this review, see
http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2009/2009-06-54.html
To comment on this review, see
http://www.bmcreview.org/2009/06/20090654.html
-------------------------------

Preview (http://books.google.com/books?id=Khl1mWoMFsAC )

This volume is the product of Dimitrova's doctoral dissertation which
has subsequently been revised and expanded into the current format. It
is made clear from the outset that the purpose of this volume is not
the definitive discussion of the inscriptions relating to theoroi and
initiates. Dimitrova presents this volume as a means to further the
current discussions upon the epigraphical evidence from Samothrace and
the information they provide on the cult, the sanctuary and the city
between the fourth century B.C. and the third century A.D. All known
inscriptions are gathered together, including those previously
published as well as texts presented here for the first time.

The cult at Samothrace was possibly established before the colonisation
of the island by Athenian settlers c.700 B.C. There is some evidence
for non-Greek names associated with the deities; the 3rd c. B.C. author
Mnaseas gives the names Axieros, Axiokersos and Axiokersa with the
Greek equivalents Demeter, Hades and Persephone. To this list is
frequently added Kasmilos or Kadmilos/Hermes. Although a significant
part of the architecture of the site dates to the fourth century B.C.
and later, rock-cut altars and other structures indicate an active and
important sanctuary from an early date. Like Eleusis, the sanctuary of
the Great Gods was a mystery cult, and initiation offered protection
for those at sea. Many votives from the sanctuary and elsewhere in the
Mediterranean testify to its importance for seafarers.

Both Eleusis and Samothrace appear to have a two-level initiation
process, each affording the participants different levels of access at
the cult. At Eleusis the first stage, or 'Little Mysteries', involved
the sacrifice of a piglet and a purification ceremony, perhaps with
some form of ritual consumption. The full initiation, 'Great
Mysteries', took place at a fixed point in the calendar during the
month of Boedromion (August/September). This involved a grand
procession from Athens, purification in the sea (spread over several
days), and finally the revelation of the sacred things to an audience
of mystai (first-time attendees) and epoptai (those who had attended
previously). The Samothracian cult operated in a similar manner, with
one subtle difference, in that initiation at both levels (mystai and
epoptai) could take place consecutively and was not limited to the
festival period, unlike Eleusis which required preliminary initiation
and then attendance at the festival during Boedromion. Various
inscriptions indicate multiple level initiation within the space of a
single day, (see Nos. 50 (IG XII 8.186), 56 ((IG XII 8.188), 67[[1]]
and No. 89,[[2]] however, Dimitrova argues that lines 16-19 in No.89
are a later addition). It has been suggested that in the Samothracian
case, initiation into the higher level of mysteries was not obligatory,
unlike Eleusis. Documentary evidence also suggests that admission to
the level of epoptai was relatively rare, indicating that there may
have been certain compulsory conditions.[[3]]

Theoroi had an official capacity during the festivals at the sanctuary,
acting as sacred ambassadors from the Greek cities. They were
essentially sent to observe the festivals. Inscriptions also refer to
theoroi-proxenoi. These are again sacred ambassadors, but with the
added function that they acted as official representatives of the
Samothracian sanctuary upon their return to their home cities.

The volume is subdivided, Part I dealing with the theoroi and Part II
with the initiates; supplementary appendices discuss additional
inscriptions which may have some relevance to these two types of
sanctuary guest. A clear and concise discussion of the etymology
behind theoros/theoroi opens the introduction (Chapter One) of Part I
and comes to the conclusion that the word is a compound of either
qe/a or qeo/s with o)pa/w.
The opinion is reached that the latter combination is more apt as it
explains the fact that both Ionic and Doric scripts use the same term,
a usage unlikely in the Doric equivalent of qe/a
(qa/a). Other related inscriptions are briefly
introduced and non-Samothracian examples explained. A similar
introduction is offered for Part II (Chapter Five). Modern (and
inaccurate) perceptions on mystery cults are dismissed and the evidence
from other mystery sanctuaries in the ancient world is highlighted and
utilised as a foundation for elucidating the Samothracian mysteries.
The mu/stai being the 'closed ones', in the context of
either mouths or eyes is interesting; especially when one considers
iconographic evidence from other 'mystery' cults like those at Eleusis
or Thebes.[[4]] A summary of initiation based on this additional
information completes the discussion of the context of the initiate
records. Furthermore, the issues pertaining to these texts are briefly
referenced, from the unknown nature of the unexcavated areas of the
site (and the surrounding area) to the unfortunate dispersal of
inscriptions in the nineteenth century across the island resulting in
the subsequent loss of provenance for many of the examples provided in
this catalogue.

A significant number of the theoroi inscriptions have near identical
dimensions for the blocks on which they are recorded, c. 0.35m in
height. This leads Dimitrova (in Chapter One) to propose the theory
that they all belong to a single building which was used as a display
receptacle for texts of this type, a practice which is known elsewhere
in the Greek world, such as at Delphi and Thasos. However, none of the
blocks correlate with currently known structures within the sanctuary.
Without further excavation of the areas at present unexplored,
Dimitrova can only hypothesise that this as-yet-undiscovered structure
was erected in the city and not the sanctuary. A full catalogue of the
theoroi inscriptions is provided in Chapters Two (wall blocks from the
possible structure, dating to the second and second/first century B.C.)
and Three (other stones, dating to the third-first centuries B.C.).
There is one anomaly in the wall blocks, an inscription (No. 4, IG
8.168) recording theoroi and proxenoi, dates to the first/second
century AD. This different date is based on the lettering but no
further discussion is provided. Re-use of the structure for recording
initiate lists during the Roman period is indicated in inscription No.
14 (IG XII 8.173). Other inscriptions from both chapters provide more
information on the site, from non-Samothracian theoroi such as Attic
colonists presumably from Lemnos or Imbros given the rarity of actual
Athenian theoroi making the journey.[[5]] Others are from Myrina,
either the Asia Minor city or that of Lemnos (since the city referred
to in the inscription is not provided with any geographical descriptor,
No.9, IG XII 8.162) and other locations in the Greek world. Sometimes
these origins can be seen in the names provided for the theoroi. The
Thracian name in No. 19 (IG XII 8.177) is unsurprising given the
relationship between Thrace and Samothrace. The city of Seuthopolis
has the earliest foreign inscription referring to the Great Gods of
Samothrace in the fourth/third century B.C.[[6]]

The openness of the cult is emphasised in Chapters Six (with ethnics)
and Seven (without ethnics) given the frequency of freeborn, freedmen
and slaves in the inscriptions. No. 36 is a good example, providing a
clear and typical layout of the lists containing free and enslaved
initiates.

Perhaps the most important, and certainly one of the most interesting
inscriptions is No. 29.[[7]] Although not Samothracian, lines 13-14
contain the only mention of Ka/biros at Samothrace as
well as information on the initiates' experience -- 'the doubly sacred
light of Kabiros'. It also refers to the opportunity for initiates to
gain a better place in the afterlife, a benefit previously only
ascribed to the Eleusinian mysteries. The identification of the Great
Gods as Kabeiroi is a long standing debate in the study of ancient
religion with the majority opting for the conclusion that the two
groups are separate, albeit related. This confusion also extends to
the ancient world. Herodotus (2.51) clearly states that the gods of
Samothrace are called Kabeiroi. It is possible that this inscription,
given its second/first century B.C. date follows Herodotus'
misconception and that by this point in history the two groups had
become conflated. Dimitrova does not explore this text as thoroughly
as it deserves in the volume, (although additional research is
available) and it is clear that further work is required. Its
non-Samothracian origin also casts doubts on its relevance to the other
texts within the volume, since other texts from outside the island are
excluded.

Additional and related inscriptions (prohibitions, decrees, etc.) are
included in Chapter Eight and Appendices I-II. Some relevant
information on the location of specific inscriptions is provided and
discussed (see Nos.168-169, SEG XII.395, XIX.593). Indices of Greek
and Latin names are also included.

The Pan-Hellenic nature of the cult is also emphasised in the
conclusions (Chapters Four and Nine) as both the theoroi and the
initiates show a wide range of origins across the Greek world which are
neatly illustrated by the maps in the introduction (Figures 1-2, pp.
2-3). The distribution patterns of attendees show trends which
Dimitrova ascribes to the popularity of the Eleusinian mysteries in
certain regions as compared with the Samothracian ones. The impact of
other cults and the relevance of the Samothracian cult to these regions
are not considered. Those cities which provided theoroi and initiates
are predominantly coastal (although there are exceptions) and
Samothrace's association with the gift of protection at sea is perhaps
of more importance to these city-states than others. Dimitrova
highlights central Greece as being a poor provider of visitors to
Samothrace, but the nature of the region perhaps precludes it from
attending an obviously marine-focused cult. Other areas also show
limited attendance yet these are not mentioned. Other observations are
also made, with further discussion on the roles of theoroi and the lack
of Roman examples to the festival(s) which may have taken place at the
cult centre.

Overall, Dimitrova offers a clear and systematic presentation of the
known epigraphic evidence. The discussion of the possible
interpretation and value of the texts is logical and justifiable. This
volume provides an exceptionally useful resource for those interested
in the Samothracian cult and also provides valuable evidence on access
and initiation in the mystery cults of the ancient world. Its value
will surely increase once the remaining volumes of the Samothrace
excavation reports are completed. The importance of interpretation
cannot be overestimated and this text will provide a useful companion
to the forthcoming Samothrace 12: The Religion of the Sanctuary of the
Great Gods.


------------------
Notes:


1. Fraser, P.M. 1960, Samothrace: Excavations Conducted by the
Institute of Fine Arts of New York University 2.1: The Inscriptions on
Stone. New York. See No. 28.

2. Fraser 1960, No. 36.

3. Bedigan, K.M. 2008, Boeotian Kabeiric Ware: The Significance of the
Ceramic Offerings at the Theban Kabeirion in Boeotia. University of
Glasgow, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, p.45.

4. Bedigan 2008, p.245-247, 346.

5. Matsas, D. and Dimitrova, N. 2006, New Samothracian inscriptions
found outside the sanctuary of the Great Gods, ZPE 155, pp.127-136. See
pp.129-130.

6. Guettel-Cole, S. 1984, Theoi Megaloi: The Cult of the Great Gods
of Samothrace. Leiden: Brill, p.21.

7. Karadima, C. and Dimitrova, N. 2003, An epitaph for an initiate at
Samothrace and Eleusis, Chiron 33, pp.335-345.



-------------------------------
The BMCR website (http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu) contains a complete and
searchable archive of BMCR reviews since our first issue in 1990.


***

скоро тук ще напиша и за преводите и книгата на Любомира Радоилска, както и за първата книга на български изследовател на античната философия, публикувана в Оксфордското университетско издателство в началото на тази година - книгата на Светла Славева-Грифин Плотин за числото

А ето я и самата Светла Славева-Грифин - д-р на университета в Айова и преподавател в университета във Флорида.



На тази снимка тя е вляво.
Снима ни съпругът й Доналд Грифин на конференцията в Краков, на която тя бе водещ на една от секциите.

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